Whether you are looking to buy or sell a commercial real estate property, it’s important to be very clear on its value. Value is defined as the most feasible price the property could reasonably earn in an active, open, and competitive market when the transaction is approached fairly and knowledgeably by both buyer and seller. There are three different approaches that are typically used to appraise a commercial property and choosing the right method for your particular investment is essential to ensuring that it is priced correctly. Let’s look at these three approaches separately.
The Income Approach
Also referred to as the Income Capitalization Approach, this tactic is the one most commonly used in commercial real estate transactions. The value is established here by estimating the property’s income using the capitalization rate (commonly referred to as merely the cap rate). The cap rate is the net operating income of the property divided by its current market value (or sales price).
An example might look something like this: Take a property with a gross potential income of $500,000, subtract a 10% vacancy factor of $50,000 and you will be left with an effective gross income of $450,000. Deducting from this the operating expenses of the property (we’ll say $150,000) will help you to arrive at a Net Operating Income (or NOI) of $300,000. Divide this by the cap rate (8%), and you will come to your fair market value price of $3,750,000.
The Replacement Cost Approach
Frequently shortened to The Cost Approach, this is a much more complicated route of valuing commercial real estate properties. It first considers the value of the land on which a building exists (value without the inclusion of the building). It then factors in what costs would be incurred to build an exact reproduction of the current existing building and adds that number onto the land value. Lastly, the depreciated value is considered, and the actual property value number adjusted accordingly.
The Market Value Approach
Sometimes called the Sales Comparison Approach or the Comparable Approach, the Market Value Approach is quite arguably the simplest method to determine the value of a commercial real estate property. This type of method compares the property in question to other properties of similar use and size, which have been sold or placed on the market in the surrounding area. A range of value is established from the findings of the market research, and from there, the number is adjusted based on the physical characteristics of the property being valued.
Factors that will likely be considered are discrepancies in the dates of the sale, age and condition of the property, square footage of the actual building and size of surrounding land, location, land to building ratio, local tax policies, and other physical characteristics based on the importance they hold in the current market and the effect they have on the particular property being valued. Basically, this number is determined by what a purchaser is likely willing to pay in an open, fair, and competitive market at any given time. A buyer may put a less or greater personal value on a property based on how it serves their needs, but this is an easy way to determine a baseline to begin negotiations between two parties.
Which Approach is Right for Me?
Now that you have a much clearer picture of each of these fundamental valuation tools, you may be wondering which method is right for your commercial real estate property. The short answer is that each of these modalities is valuable depending on your situation. For example, it’s going to be harder to determine cap rates and comparable selling prices for a property that is located further away from similar properties; in which case, The Replacement Cost Approach may make the most sense. If you have access to the data needed to determine the cap rate, The Income Approach will be sufficient. If you have a property where vacancy rates fluctuate (such as a multifamily building), this may not work out so well; in which case, you might consider The Market Value Approach of using comparables.
Looking for Commercial Real Estate in the Gulf South region?
If you’re ready to sell your commercial real estate property or looking to invest, it’s imperative that you are clear on a property’s actual worth. Working with a professional can help you avoid mistakes and pitfalls. At Stirling Properties, our experienced team of commercial advisors is here to make your venture a success. With offices throughout Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle, we have specialists in all aspects of commercial real estate including retail, office, industrial, healthcare and multifamily sectors. You can’t go wrong having us on your side. Please take a look at our extensive database of commercial properties and contact one of our expert team members today!
Apart from calculating the value myself, I asked some MacombCRE brokers for a quote of my commercial property and used their quotes to compare it with my calculation.
I had no idea that you could calculate the value of a commercial property by estimating the property’s income using the cap rate. My brother recently came to inherit some real estate and he wants to find out how much it is worth. I may just recommend that he find an appraisal service.
Thank you so much for providing these lost of information. I do really learned a lot.
Thanks for helping me out to understand the factors which should be taken into consideration while evaluating the price of a commercial property. Location of the property plays a key role in the evaluation procedure which should not be ignored. Besides, assistance from an experienced real estate professional could be very useful. Such professionals have a lot of knowledge in this field and could provide suitable assistance required for the valuation of the concerned property.
I’m glad you helped to better understand how to value my property! I found it interesting that you mentioned that the location and the condition of the property play an important role in determining the value of the property. If I was in this situation, I would be sure to hire a consultant to help me determine the value of my property.